Tire Basics

Tire Basics

Tire Usage

1. Load

The contact area of each Tire is equivalent to the size of a hand but it can carry the weight of the vehicle and its passengers.

2. Shock Absorption

When driving on unpaved roads, do you know what ensures a comfortable drive? Tires! Tires are formulated using 50% elastic rubber with inner air pressure serving as a shock absorption tool to help minimize bumpy rides.

3. Vehicle Handling, Driving Force, and Braking Power

Tires are the only part of the vehicle that comes into contact with the road. When initiating, driving, braking, or parking your vehicle tires successfully help complete your command.

4. Steering Wheel Movement

Tires communicate the controls of the driver. Steering and reversing operations are dictated by the tires.

Tire Specification

The sidewall provides valuable information about the tire including the specifications, the brand, and the type of construction. All numbers are standardized and recognized by tire manufacturers around the world. Codes:

  • 1. Section Width(mm)
  • 2. Aspect Ratio(Section height as a percentage of the section width).
  • 3. Rim Diameter(in)
  • 4. Load Index
  • 5. Speed Rating

Load Index and Speed Rating

Load index corresponds to the load capacity while speed rating is designated using letters from J to Z and represents the maximum speed of the tire. These two factors are interdependent. Please refer to the tables below for the load index and speed rating.

Load Index (Maximum Load)

LI lbs kg LI lbs kg LI lbs kg LI lbs kg
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 761 783 805 827 853 882 908 937 963 992 345 355 365 375 387 400 412 425 437 450 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 1019 1047 1074 1102 1135 1168 1201 1235 1279 1323 462 475 487 500 515 530 545 560 580 600 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 1356 1389 1433 1477 1521 1565 1609 1653 1709 1764 615 630 650 670 690 710 730 750 775 800 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 1819 1874 1929 1984 2039 2094 2149 2205 2271 2337 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 1000 1030 1060


Speed Rating (Maximum Speed)

mph 62 68 75 81 87 93 100 106 113 118 130 150 168 188
kmh 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 210 240 270 300
What Are Run Flat Tires?

Run flat tires also known as safe tires or zero pressure tires are designed to perform after a puncture or complete loss of tire inflation pressure has occurred. These tires allow you to drive up to 80km at 80km/h to help you reach a safe place.

Comparison between Run Flat Tires and Ordinary Tires:

How Do Tires Cope with Summer Heat?

Challenge #1  

Challenge #2  

Summer thunderstorms produce water on road surfaces and causes tire skidding.

How Can Small Tires Carry Heavy Vehicles?


  • 1. A strong bead ring is found on the inner part of the tire, where the tire and rim join together. The bead ring securely fastens the tire with the rim to ensure safety and minimize deformation.
  • 2. When a partial amount of pressure is applied, the strong bead ring can withstand up to 3 tons before it detaches from the tire.
  • 3. It will take more than 6 tons of force to break the bead ring.
How to Valves Keep Tires Safe?

The tire valve may be small, but it is an extremely important vehicle component that helps improves safety and tire life. The valve also ensures stable tire pressure is attained by allowing you to adjust the pressure. A valve cap is an essential part of the valve that provides added protection and prevents dust from seeping in. The tire valve is made of rubber and after long term usage it will deteriorate. Overtime, normal driving practices will exert pressure on the valve causing damage or wear. Although a tire valve is not expensive, it plays an important part in tire performance and safety. Giti Tire recommends replacing tire valves whenever new tires are installed. Tire valve helps maintain stable tire pressure by inflating or deflating the tire.
How Do Tires Maintain Maximum Contact Area?


When treveling on the road, tires are the only part of the vehicle that comes into contact with the ground.

The contact area of each tire is equivalent to the size of a hand.

Carrying a weight of
Do You Know the Importance of Maintaining Proper Tire Pressure?
Proper Tire Pressure Is Important.
How to Avoid Safety Hazards When Driving?

Hazard #1: Exterior Tire Damage

Leads to: air leaks, flat tires, shorter tire life, and affects safe travels

Carefully check your tire's appearance. If problems appear, replace the tires immediately.

Hazard #2: Excessive Tread Wear

Leads to: reduced handling, braking, and water dispersion abilities

Measure the tread depth. If less than 1.6 mm, replace the tires immediately.

Hazard #3: Improper Tire Pressure

Leads to: uneven tire wear, reduced handling and comfort, increased fuel consumption, and even tire blowouts

Check the air pressure of all tires (including the spare).
Standard tire pressure recommendations can be found in the owner's manual or on the driver side car door.
How to Choose the Right Shoes for Your Vehicle?

When faced with complex road conditions, do you know how to choose the right tires for your car?

Selecting Suitable Tires for Different Road Conditions is Essential!


Friction Generated By Tire Pattern and Ground Is a Source of Power for Tires

Highway Terrain:
Fine Tread Pattern (HT)

Comfort Low Noise

Mud Terrain:
Exaggerated Tread Pattern (MT)

Strong Off-Road Capabilities

All Terrain:
Rough Pattern with Attention to Details (AT)

Balancing Off-Road Capabilities and Comfort

Do You Know how Many Rotations Your Tires Make Per Second?
How to Examine Tire Wear?

Every tire is designed with a tread wear indicator (TWI) which is a raised section molded into the grooves of a tire. In passenger car tires, the TWI is around 1.6 mm and the tire shoulder is labeled with TWI or the △ symbol.

TWI indicates the tread wear limit and helps vehicle owners understand the tread wear so they know when to replace the tires. When the tread is leveled with the TWI, the tread pattern will be separated and the tires need to be replaced immediately.

Note: When tread wear limit is reached, handling, braking, and water evacuation will significantly be decreased. Extremely dangerous!


Replace Tires Immediately If:

Sidewall Bulges

Please replace tires immediately to avoid tire blowouts

Multiple Cuts

Increases probability of tire leak


Sidewall Cracks

Tire shows signs of deterioration

If your tires have any of the conditions mentioned above, it is recommended that you visit the nearest Giti Professional Service Center to replace the tires!

How to Read the Sidewall?

The sidewall of a tire contains information for your safety and knowledge. Being able to read sidewall markings will help you better understand the performance of each tire and provide information for mounting and servicing the tire.

  • 1. Section Width (mm)
  • 2. Aspect Ratio
  • 3. Rim Diameter (in)
  • 4. Load Index
  • 5. Speed Index

Passenger Car Tire Specifications:

(195/60R15 88V)

  • 195: Section Width (mm)
  • 60: Aspect Ratio
  • R: Radial Construction
  • 15: Rim Diameter (in)
  • 88V: Load Index and Speed Rating
What is Speed Rating? How Will a Lower Speed Rating Affect the Vehicle?

Under specified conditions, speed rating is a letter representing the maximum speed at which the tire can carry a load corresponding to its load index (except for passenger car and motorcycle tires with speeds greater than 210 km/h). Under specified conditions, load index is a numerical code representing the maximum load the tire can carry corresponding to its speed rating (except for passenger car and motorcycle tires with speeds greater than 210 km/h). Speed rating is represented with a letter from J to Z and is the maximum speed corresponding to its load index.

Please refer to the following speed rating table (Maximum Speed)


mp/h 62 68 75 81 87 93 100
km/h 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
mp/h 106 113 118 130 150 168 188
km/h 170 180 190 210 240 270 300